Good conformation includes proper balance and mass, structural correctness and desirable breed and sex characteristics. Fads at times have skewed the importance of one trait or another, but all are important , no matter the purpose for which the horse is intended.
Balance refers to the even, smooth blending of all parts and muscling .Balance is determined by the length of the neck, the back and the croup. Of utmost importance is that the angle of the shoulder should be adequate. Many breeders believe that the slope of the shoulder will determine a horse’s agility, because the slope defines the length of the neck. If the slope of the shoulder is too steep, the neck will appear short and the back long.
The angle of the shoulder will also be the angle of the pastern. If the shoulder is steep, the angle of the pastern will be steep, which results in a rough, short stride. A horse with a long, moderately sloping shoulder, will typically have a long neck, a short back and a smooth stride. The length of the neck determines the length of the stride as well as the horse’s flexibility. In a performance horse especially, the neck must be long to allow for proper flexing at the poll, which is required in any performance event.
The back should be short and strong with a long underline. The horse should have a long, moderately sloping croup. The length of the croup is important because it is essentially the “engine” that powers an equine athlete. A long croup more readily accommodates more muscle mass.
Balance also accounts for the evenness of muscling. All the parts of a horse’s body should blend smoothly into each other and present a pleasing picture.
Long, sloping shoulders; short, strong back; long underline; and a long croup increase the probability that your horse can become a good “athlete.”
Mass and internal body capacity
A horse’s muscling should be long patterned and defined. Muscle mass can most easily be determined when viewed from directly in front of or behind the horse. As viewed from the front, the horse should show significant width from shoulder to shoulder, a large circumference to the forearm, and a prominent “v” in the front muscling. As viewed from the back, the horse should be wide from stifle to stifle, and the quarter should tie in deep to strong gaskins.
When viewed from the side, a horse should have strong forearms, a deep quarter, strong gaskins, and a long croup to accommodate a large amount of muscle mass through a prominent stifle. In addition, the horse should have a large-circumference heart girth.
For halter horses, the more muscle mass the better. For performance horses, muscle mass should be no more than adequate to perform the tasks at hand, because increased muscle bulk detracts from the fluidity of the horse’s stride.
The internal body capacity of a horse determines the room available for lung and heart functions. The more lung capacity a horse has, the more air it can take in with each stride, making the horse capable of more powerful and efficient performance and greater stamina. Internal body capacity also determines the ability of a potential broodmare to carry a large foal.
Structural correctness affects the action and soundness of horses. When the front legs are viewed from the front, a line should bisect the forearm, knee, cannon, fetlock and the bulb of the heel . If the toes point outward, the horse is splay-footed; if the toes point inward, the horse is considered pigeon-toed. Typically pigeon-toed horses wing out and splay-footed horses wing in when walking. When the front legs are viewed from the side, the knees should be flat.
When a horse is viewed from behind, a line should bisect the gaskin, hock, cannon, fetlock, pastern and foot. If the horse’s hocks turn inward, the horse is considered cow-hocked. When the legs are viewed from the side, a straight line drawn downward from the back of the buttock should touch the back of the hock, cannon and fetlock. If the horse has too much angle in the hocks, then it is considered to be sickle-hocked. If the leg is forward of this line and too straight, the horse is considered post-legged.
Pasterns should be of medium length, be strong but flexible, and have a medium slope. The hoof should have the same angle as the pastern and should be of moderate size but deep and wide at the heel, and free of rings. The slope of the shoulders and pasterns, combined with the expansion of the heel, provides shock absorption when the horse is in motion. Bones should be of adequate size and should show definition of joints and appear flat when viewed from the side.
Deviation from these points of structural correctness predisposes a horse to unsoundness and wasted motion. Bone spavins, bogs, thoroughpins and weakness are common among sickle-hocked horses. Jarring from short, straight pasterns and shoulders predisposes a horse to side bones, stiffness, bogs and lameness. White hoofs are softer and wear faster than black or red hooves.
Breed and sex characteristics
Breed and sex characteristics of a horse define its quality. A horse should exhibit the characteristics that progressive breeders look for — in short, the breed’s icon. Quality is indicated by refinement of head, bone, joints and hair coat. It is reflected in thin skin, prominent veins, and the absence of coarseness, especially in the legs. A quality horse has more attractiveness and eye appeal, including prominent sex characteristics. A stallion should appear more powerful and stately than a mare. A stallion’s head should have a masculine jaw, whereas the mare should be a picture of refined femininity. The gelding falls between the two.
An outstanding horse will always exhibit superior conformation. Some horse judges support fads and are more forgiving of certain faults than others. However, a horse’s form is related directly to function. In the long run, whenever you sacrifice certain qualities of conformation, a limitation in ability will occur. When evaluating horses, the ideal will always be in demand; there is no substitute for quality
Conformation of Forelimbs (Side)
The Conformation of a horse Forelimbs as viewed from the side, can be assessed from the following diagrams by comparing the movement of the axis X-X and Y-Y in relation to the datum axis A-A.
1 = ” Regular Conformation “
2 = ” Under Himself at Front “. This conformation shortens the base of support and so equilibrium is less stable. The horse is therefore more likely to fall upon its knees.
3 = ” Camped in Front ” . The base of support is lengthened, rendering equilibrium more stable but probably reducing speed.
4 = ” Hollow Knee “. May give rise to extra strain on the ligaments behind the knee and back tendons.
5 = ” Over at the Knee “ A horse with such a conformation may be liable to stumble and fall upon its knees.
Conformation of Hindlimbs (Side)
The Conformation of a horse Hindlimbs as viewed from the side, can be assessed from the following diagrams by comparing the movement of the axis X-X and Y-Y in relation to the datum axis A-A.
1 = ” Regular Conformation “.
2 = ” Camped Behind ” It lengthens the base of support but throws more supporting function upon the muscles of the back and loins so that the horse may also exhibit a ” sway back ” as well as always being liable to slip backwards during movement.
3 = ” Under Himself Behind “ The base of support is shortened and equilibrium is less stable : the horse is liable to slip forwards during movement and forging is likely to occur.
Conformation of Forelimbs (From Front)
1 = ” Regular Stance “
2 = ” Crow Footed in Front ” & 3 = ” Outbow – Footed “. These type of conformation produce an unequal contact of the hoof with the ground and a consequent increase in wear of the lateral quarter and decrease of the medial quarter. Also the outer ligaments of the knees are subject to increased tension while the inner bones are subjected to increased compression. A horse with such conformation may well suffer from interference and be predisposed to stumbling.
4 = ” Ox – Kneed ” This irregularity throws unusual stresses on the lower part of the limb, especially the inner ligaments of the knee and fetlock whilst standing normally.
5 = ” Too Open in Front “. A horse too open in front may be due to a larges development of the breast, ribs and brisket, the limb still being more or less vertical. This conformation will render the horse that more stable but it may detract from speed.
6 = ” Closed in Front “. Due to the underdevelopment of the chest muscles, the limbs will deviate outwards from a narrow chest above, the horse may be lacking in wind and the feet will wear and be subjected to unusual stress similar to the Ox – kneed or Outbow – Footed horse.
Conformation of Hindlimbs (From Rear)
1 = ” Regular Stance “. With such a limb position, the space between the two feet is about one hoof from quarter to quarter.
2 = ” Closed Behind “. It is generally found in horses with narrow chests, croup and loins i.e. showing underdevelopment of the body musculature generally. The horse is rendered less stable since the base of support lessened and the horse is disposed to interfering and general awkwardness of gait.
3 = ” Cow – Hocked “. This conformation is also generally associated with Outbow – Footedness as in the illustration. The horse tends to be quite stable but movement is awkward, although not necessarily diminished in speed and the hindlimbs have a tendency to go wide in a sliding stop. In time, strain on the hock may cause bone spavin.
4 = ” Too Open Behind “. As with the forelimbs, should the openness be due to excessive muscle development of the trunk, then the horse may well be very stable and very powerful. On the other hand, should the situation arise from poor muscle development, the limbs will diverge from above downwards and the inner face of the limbs from the hock downwards will be subjected to unnecessary strain.
5 = ” Cow – Hocked “. Since the hock is somewhat curved, it is subjected to unusual stress on the lateral ligaments which are stretched and the inner bones which are overloaded. The outer quarter of the foot may be subjected to excessive wear relative to the inner quarter.